ANSI Z308.1-2015 Standard Minimum Requirements  Workplace First Aid Kits and Supplies - Buy new ANSI Kits
ANSI Z308.1-2015 Standard Minimum Requirements Workplace First Aid Kits and Supplies - Buy new ANSI Kits

Safety Training

Employers and workforces aren’t always necessarily compliant to the regulations set forth by federal standard or rules, such as the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act. Did you know that employers are required to provide a safe working environment for employees? Also did you know that many states have their own workplace safety laws? If you are an employer, our Safety Training news feed will keep you up to date with current information regarding safety training and standards, such as OSHA Safety Training & DOT, Oil & Gas regulations, Maritime OSHA regulations, Forklift safety & compliance, Construction, HAZMAT and more. Some of our articles include tips on where to find current books, manuals, CDs, DVDs, videos, training materials, safety kits, forms & much more to make sure that you are compliant with not only the Department of Labor and Department of Transportation rules and regulations but also keeping you properly informed about how to properly protect your workforce on a day-to-day basis. Read & keep up-to-date on specific federal rules and regulations which pertain to your line of business. Understanding the Code of Federal Regulations isn’t for the faint of heart so follow our articles, keep your employees educated.
  • Training for New Emergency Managers

    While every new Safety Manager needs an OSHA Dictionary, and the OSHA Safety Orders... there's a lot more to it than that!

    OSHA DictionaryFEMA’s National Emergency Management Basic Academy is the entry point for individuals pursuing a career in emergency management. The Basic Academy offers the tools to develop comprehensive foundational skills needed in emergency management. For those who are new to emergency management, the Basic Academy also provides a unique opportunity to build camaraderie, to establish professional contacts, and to understand the roles, responsibilities, and legal boundaries associated with emergency management.

    The Basic Academy curriculum consists of five courses: Foundations of Emergency Management; Science of Disaster; Planning: Emergency Operations; Exercise Design; and Public Information and Warning. Upcoming courses in the program are Science of Disaster, a three-day, 24-hour training being held August 8-10, followed by the Planning course, a two-day, 16-hour training being offered August 11-12. Applications for both courses are due by June 27. The courses will be delivered by the Emergency Management Institute at FEMA’s National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland. For more information, visit the EMI website or send an email to FEMA-EMPP-Basic-Academy@fema.dhs.gov. Note: courses may be taken even when participants are not planning to receive a Basic Academy certification.

    The Basic Academy is the first of a three-level Academy series in the Emergency Management Professional Program (EMPP). The EMPP curriculum is designed to provide a lifetime of learning for emergency management professionals and includes three separate, but closely threaded, training programs. The program builds from the Basic Academy to the National Emergency Management Advanced Academy, a program to develop the next generation of emergency management leaders who are trained in advanced concepts and issues, advanced leadership and management, and critical thinking and problem solving. The EMPP culminates in the National Emergency Management Executive Academy, a program designed to challenge and enhance the talents of the nation’s emergency management senior executives through critical thinking, visionary strategic planning, challenging conventional concepts, and negotiation and conflict resolution applied to complex real-world problems.

    Emergency management professionals should visit www.training.fema.gov/empp for more information about which academy best suits their needs.

    OSHA Dictionary

    This is the OSHA reference book every safety professional needs. This one-of-a-kind book contains ALL the terms and definitions from OSHA 29 CFR Parts 1903, 1904, 1910, and 1926 (inspections, recordkeeping, general industry, and construction). Look up a term and discover its different definitions in various sections of OSHA. For instance, "competent person" has 6 different definitions from 9 different OSHA regulations, and each one is listed. The definitions are also followed by the section and paragraph number of the regulations from which they were taken. Important related tables and illustrations have been included to aid in understanding.

  • Heat Stroke First Aid Treatment

    Image of surfer laying down next to surf board suffering from heat stroke

    How to treat Heat Stroke

    • Call 9-1-1 or activate EMS immediately! A delayed call could be fatal.
    • The main objective of first aid treatment for heat stroke is to lower the casualty’s body temperature as quickly as possible.
    • Move the casualty to a shady or cool place.
    • Loosen and/or remove any sweat-soaked clothing.
    • Cool the casualty’s body by immersing him/her in cold water or if unavailable, sponging him/her down with cold compresses.
    • Fan the casualty with a magazine, cardboard, or an electric fan.
    • Do not give the casualty anything to drink unless their condition stabilizes. Once stabilized, small sips of water can be given. Do not give caffeinated or alcoholic beverages.

    Read more: What is Heat Stroke?Sun SafetyExtreme HeatHow do Hurricanes relate to Extreme Heat?

    Content excerpted from the Urgent First Aid Guide used by permission Copyright 2013 UrgentFirstAid.com
    All Rights Reserved. Get a full copy of the First Aid Guide for under $1!

    Heat Emergencies range from discomfort to life-threatening! Learn the Signs, Symptoms and Treatment of Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Find out about LIVE OSHA Standard First Aid & Emergency Care at your location... check out American CPR Training™

  • Fall Protection and Prevention

    In the construction industry in the U.S., falls are the leading cause of worker fatalities.  Each year between 150 and 200 workers die, and more than 100,000 are injured as a result of falls at construction sites.  33% of all construction fatalities are fall related. Falls from 11 feet or more result in an 85% death rate.

    Whenever potential fall hazards are recognized, employers and employees must do the following:

    • Select fall protection systems appropriate for the work and/or situation;
    • Train workers in proper selection, use, inspection, maintenance and storage of all fall protection/prevention devices and systems to be utilized;
    • Use proper construction and installation of safety systems;
    • Supervise employees properly; and
    • Use safe work procedures.

     

    TYPES OF FALLS:

    Same Level Falls / Slips and Trips

    Falls from Heights – Lifts, Scaffolds & Ladders, and Structural

    Steel and Decking

    TRIGGER HEIGHTS

    Fall-ClimbThe trigger height is that level at which fall protection/prevention is required.  Federal standards require fall protection at 6 feet, while individual states impose a variety of trigger heights according to the task that is being performed.

    EXPOSURE IDENTIFICATION

    • Identify specific work that may expose workers to fall hazards
    • Identify what workers, trades may be exposed

     

    FACTORS DETERMINING SEVERITY OF FALL

    • Distance
    • Impact Surface
    • Body Position
    • Objects / Structures Impacted
    • Victim’s Age and Weight

    TYPES OF FALL PROTECTION

    • Guardrails
    • Safety Nets
    • Personal Fall Protection Systems
    • Limited Access Zones

    GUARDRAIL SYSTEMS

    Defined as a barrier erected to prevent workers from falling to lower levels, a guardrail system must be used:

    • On unprotected sides or edges of a ramp or runway.
    • On unprotected sides or edges of holes.
    • To restrict access to hoist areas when not used for hoisting.
    • No openings can be more than 19” apart.
    • When holes are used to pass materials, no more than two sides of the guardrail may be removed at a time.
    • Never use a guardrail as a place to tie off!
    • Guardrails must be inspected as often as needed

    Guardrails must meet the following criteria:

    • Must resist a 200 lb. force within 2” of the top edge in an outward or downward direction at any location along the top rail.
    • Midrails must resist a 150 lb. force along any point of the rail.
    • Toeboards must resist a 50 lb. force along any point.
    • Guardrails may be constructed of wood, pipe, roping or wire.
    • Guardrails may never be used as anchor points for Personal Fall Arrest Systems.

    SAFETY NET SYSTEMS

    Safety net systems are used to catch people or tools, material or equipment.  Debris nets are not the same thing.  Debris nets are used for catching equipment only, not for catching people, and are not fall protection equipment.

    Safety nets must be installed as close as practical under the surface where employees are working.  Note:  Safety nets must never be more than 30 feet below the working surface.

    Safety Net Requirements:

    • The safety net must be installed so that if something falls into the net, it will not touch structures or surfaces below.
    • The fall area between the working surface and the net must be free of obstructions.
    • Tools, scrap, or equipment that fall into a net must be removed as soon as possible,
    • Mesh openings cannot be larger than 36 square inches, or longer than 6” on any side.
    • The border rope of a safety net must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 lbs.
    • Safety nets must be inspected: weekly for wear, damage and other deterioration, and after any use that could affect the net

    Safety nets must be drop-tested, on site:

    • before  use
    • after any major repair to the system
    • every six months if left in one place for extended periods of time.

    Drop-test is done by by dropping a 400 lb. sandbag, 28” to 32” in diameter, into the center of the net.

    PERSONAL FALL ARREST SYSTEMS

    Fall-SlingA PFAS is a system used to protect an employee in a fall from a working level.

    It consists of:

    • An anchorage,
    • Connectors,
    • A body belt or body harness
    • And may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these.

    Since January 1, 1998 the use of body belts for fall arrest has been prohibited!

    • Employers must plan the rescue of the worker.
    • Damaged equipment may not be used. 
    • Knots in tethers and lanyards decrease line  strength by 50%.
    • Free fall distance on lanyards is limited to 6’. This includes the sum of the fall distance and the deceleration distance.
    • Deceleration distance must not exceed 3.5’.
    • Anchorage points, lines, lanyards, and connectors must be able to withstand a force of 5,000 per worker.
    • Equipment may not be modified in any way
    • Equipment must be inspected before and after each use.
    • Equipment must be taken out of service if any defects are found.

    THE ABCD’s of FALL PROTECTION/PREVENTION

    • A  is for ANCHORAGE POINT
    • B  is for BODY HARNESS
    • C  is for CONNECTION POINT
    • D  is for DEVICES – such as horizontal lifelines, hardware, lanyards, etc.

    Fall Protection Safety Training:

    fall-protection-tileFall Protection - OSHA Safety Training: Falls are the second leading cause of death each year in the United States (after traffic accidents)! Over 10,000 people are killed every year as a result of falls...and 200,000 to 300,000 people are disabled. Eight-five percent of all falls that occur on the job result in "lost work time".

    Our training products on "Fall Protection" provide the information employees need to work safely when they are "off the ground", and assist in satisfying the major training requirements in the OSHA Standard on Fall Protection. Topics covered in these products include:

    • The seriousness of fall hazards.
    • Types of environments where falls may occur.
    • The "Fall Protection Plan".
    • Concentrating and keeping a clear head.
    • The importance of housekeeping in preventing falls.
    • Measures that can be taken to protect against falls.
    • Protective equipment.
    • and more.

    Get a Quote for a Class:
    Fall Protection Live Instruction Training Courses at YOUR Location

  • Laboratory Safety

    Today, more than ever, safety considerations are extremely important in our laboratory environments.  Yet often we are so caught up in the work we are doing that we forget or ignore safety practices and procedures.  As a result, accidents and injuries in the laboratory have become all too common.

    There are a number of reasons that we need to pay more attention to safety in our environment.  We work with increasingly complex equipment and apparatus while, at the same time, something as simple as a crack in a piece of glassware can be enough to create a significant problem.

    Lab-SafetyWe have always known that many of the materials that we use can be hazardous if not handled correctly.  That is true today perhaps more than ever before.  Knowing where to go for information about potential hazards, such as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS’s), can make the difference between running a safe experiment or a dangerous one.

    Another thing that has significantly affected our laboratory operations are recent OSHA regulations.  The OSHA Laboratory Standard deals specifically with the handling of hazardous chemicals.  The Bloodborne Pathogens regulations address bloodborne diseases and the ramifications of working with infectious materials.  And with the passage of these regulations OSHA has become much more active in overseeing and inspecting laboratory facilities.

    There are many elements that are crucial to the establishment of a safe lab environment. Understanding the proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), safe handling of glassware, vent control, and even proper housekeeping all affect the overall lab safety.  Additionally, knowledge of hazardous chemicals, container labeling and the steps to take in the event of a spill or exposure have become very important in performing our jobs safely.

    Topics for consideration:

    • What are some types of PPE used in your lab, and under what situations are they used?
    • What are some of the various potential emergencies that may be faced in a lab environment?  Discuss the steps to be taken in response to these emergencies.
    • What are the primary reasons for clearly labeling all chemicals in the workplace?
    • What types of information should be present on a warning label? What are some of the symbols and codes you are likely to find on a container of potentially hazardous material?

    Flammables and Explosives

    A flammable can be described as a substance that can readily catch fire and burn under certain conditions.  Conditions that will affect a substance’s likelihood of ignition include the temperature, the concentration of the substance in the atmosphere, and the proximity of other types of chemicals, among others.

    We use a number of flammable substances in our laboratories, and even some materials that are potentially explosive.  The damage caused by either one of these types of materials can be severe.  We need to be able to use methods that allow us to work safely with flammable and explosive substances.

    Being aware of flashpoints, limits of flammability, ignition temperatures and other information governing the way flammables and explosives act is therefore very important to us.  Likewise, knowing how to protect ourselves when working with these materials and what to do if an emergency should occur is also important.

    Topics for consideration:

    • What do the terms “flashpoint,”  “limits of flammability,” and “ignition temperature” mean?
    • What are some examples of common laboratory activities or situations that could ignite flammable or explosive materials?
    • What is the “Fire Triangle?”

    Preventing Contamination

    Handling hazardous chemicals and specimens requires a great deal of caution.  If we don’t contain them, these materials can spread and contaminate the things around them… including you.

    Every day our work calls on us to safely handle substances like Toxins, Corrosives and Carcinogens.  We thing we spend a lot of time protecting ourselves, but are we really doing all we can?

     

    Topics for consideration:

    • What are the sources of information we can use to find out about potential hazards?
    • What are some of the potential contamination hazards faced at your facility?
    • Discuss some of the methods we can use to protect against contamination.

    Laboratory Hoods

    Many of the materials we work with give off fumes, mists, vapors, particulates and aerosols that are hazardous.  To minimize exposure to these materials we need to take special precautions.  In many cases, this means working within a “hood.”

    Hoods can protect us in several ways.  Their sashes provide protection from hazards like chemical splashes and sprays, as well as fires and minor explosions.

    A hood also creates a protective barrier by pulling air into and through the workspace.  This inward airflow helps keep hazardous fumes and vapors from escaping and reaching us.

    Hoods should be used in much of the work that we do.  To use them most effectively we need to be familiar with how they operate and the proper procedures for using them.

    Topics for consideration:

    • From what potential hazards can hoods protect us?
    • What is Face Velocity?
    • How can you test a hood for proper functionality?

    Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Compressed gas cylinders exist for one reason, to hold large amounts of gas in comparatively small spaces.  By this process of compression, the gas is placed under extreme pressure, and the resulting potential for sudden release or explosion is increased.

    Usually, compressed gas cylinders are very safe.  However, there are a number of situations that can cause problems to occur.  Even a small leak can quickly disperse a cylinder’s contents over a large area.

    In the laboratory, we use compressed gas in a number of situations and, as a result, we need to understand how the cylinders work and how to handle them safely.

    Topics for discussion:

    • What are some potential hazards of improperly handling or storing compressed gas cylinders?
    • What are some of the methods of safely storing pressurized gases?
    • What are some safety considerations that should be observed when moving or transporting compressed gas cylinders within a facility?

    Safe Handling of Laboratory Glassware

    Laboratory glassware is a well-crafted, highly versatile tool for use in the work environment.  As with any glass however, there is the risk of damage or injury from dropping, bumping, excessive pressure, or drastic temperature changes.  If a piece of glassware should break, there is the possibility of injury from sharp edges or from the release of its chemical contents.

    In order to safely handle this type of equipment, it is necessary to understand its risks and limitations, as well as proper inspection methods, handling techniques, and disposal procedures.

    Topics for consideration:

    • What are some of the proper techniques required for safely carrying or transporting glassware?
    • What different types of PPE should be used when handling glassware in different situations?

    LAB SAFETY TRAINING PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS:

    1. Material Safety Data Sheets in the Laboratory
    2. Electrical Safety in the Laboratory
    3. Laboratory Safety Series: 12 Program Package
    4. Orientation to Laboratory Safety
    5. Laboratory Ergonomics
    6. Laboratory Hoods
    7. OSHA Laboratory Standard Refresher Training
    8. OSHA Laboratory Standard
    9. Planning for Laboratory Emergencies
    10. Safe Handling of Laboratory Glassware
    11. Compressed Gas Cylinders in the Laboratory - OSHA Safety Training
    12. Flammables and Explosives in the Laboratory
  • Hand & Portable Powered Tools

    Hazard Recognition

    Tools are such a common part of our lives that it is difficult to remember that they may pose hazards. All tools are manufactured with safety in mind but, tragically, a serious accident often occurs before steps are taken to search out and avoid or eliminate tool-related hazards.

    In the process of removing or avoiding the hazards, workers must learn to recognize the hazards associated with the different types of tools and the safety precautions necessary to prevent those hazards.

    Hand Tools

    Hand tools are non-powered. They include anything from axes to wrenches. The greatest hazards posed by hand tools result from misuse and improper maintenance.

    Some examples:

    • Using a screwdriver as a chisel may cause the tip of the screwdriver to break and fly, hitting the user or other employees.
    • If a wooden handle on a tool such as a hammer or an axe is loose, splintered, or cracked, the head of the tool may fly off and strike the user or another worker.
    • A wrench must not be used if its jaws are sprung, because it might slip.
    • Impact tools such as chisels, wedges, or drift pins are unsafe if they have mushroomed heads. The heads might shatter on impact, sending sharp fragments flying.

    hand-power-toolsThe employer is responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees but the employees have the responsibility for properly using and maintaining tools.

    Employers should caution employees that saw blades, knives, or other tools be directed away from aisle areas and other employees working in close proximity. Knives and scissors must be sharp. Dull tools can be more hazardous than sharp ones.

    Appropriate personal protective equipment, e.g., safety goggles, gloves, etc., should be worn due to hazards that may be encountered while using portable power tools and hand tools.

    Safety requires that floors be kept as clean and dry as possible to prevent accidental slips with or around dangerous hand tools.

    Around flammable substances, sparks produced by iron and steel hand tools can be a dangerous ignition source. Where this hazard exists, spark-resistant tools made from brass, plastic, aluminum, or wood will provide for safety.

    Power Tool Precautions

    Power tools can be hazardous when improperly used. There are several types of power tools, based on the power source they use: electric, pneumatic, liquid fuel, hydraulic, and powder-actuated.

    Employees should be trained in the use of all tools - not just power tools. They should understand the potential hazards as well as the safety precautions to prevent those hazards from occurring.

    The following general precautions should be observed by power tool users:

    • Never carry a tool by the cord or hose.
    • Never yank the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle.
    • Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges.
    • Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing, and when changing accessories such as blades, bits and cutters.
    • All observers should be kept at a safe distance away from the work area.
    • Secure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool.
    • Avoid accidental starting. The worker should not hold a finger on the switch button while carrying a plugged-in tool.
    • Tools should be maintained with care. They should be kept sharp and clean for the best performance. Follow instructions in the user's manual for lubricating and changing accessories.
    • Be sure to keep good footing and maintain good balance.
    • The proper apparel should be worn. Loose clothing, ties, or jewelry can become caught in moving parts.
    • All portable electric tools that are damaged shall be removed from use and tagged "Do Not Use."

    Guards

    Hazardous moving parts of a power tool need to be safeguarded. For example, belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or moving parts of equipment must be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees.

    Guards, as necessary, should be provided to protect the operator and others from the following:

    • point of operation,
    • in-running nip points,
    • rotating parts, and
    • flying chips and sparks.

    Safety guards must never be removed when a tool is being used. For example, portable circular saws must be equipped with guards. An upper guard must cover the entire blade of the saw. A retractable lower guard must cover the teeth of the saw, except when it makes contact with the work material. The lower guard must automatically return to the covering position when the tool is withdrawn from the work.

    Safety Switches

    The following hand-held powered tools must be equipped with a momentary contact "on-off" control switch: drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical and angle grinders with wheels larger than 2 inches in diameter, disc and belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and other similar tools. These tools also may be equipped with a lock-on control provided that turnoff can be accomplished by a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on.

    The following hand-held powered tools may be equipped with only a positive "on-off" control switch: platen sanders, disc sanders with discs 2 inches or less in diameter; grinders with wheels 2 inches or less in diameter; routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws and jigsaws with blade shanks ¼-inch wide or less.

    Other hand-held powered tools such as circular saws having a blade diameter greater than 2 inches, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means must be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released.

    Electric Tools

    Employees using electric tools must be aware of several dangers; the most serious is the possibility of electrocution.

    Among the chief hazards of electric-powered tools are burns and slight shocks which can lead to injuries or even heart failure. Under certain conditions, even a small amount of current can result in fibrillation of the heart and eventual death. A shock also can cause the user to fall off a ladder or other elevated work surface.

    To protect the user from shock, tools must either have a three-wire cord with ground and be grounded, be double insulated, or be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer. Three-wire cords contain two current-carrying conductors and a grounding conductor. One end of the grounding conductor connects to the tool's metal housing. The other end is grounded through a prong on the plug. Anytime an adapter is used to accommodate a two-hole receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a known ground. The third prong should never be removed from the plug.

    Double insulation is more convenient. The user and the tools are protected in two ways: by normal insulation on the wires inside, and by a housing that cannot conduct electricity to the operator in the event of a malfunction.

    These general practices should be followed when using electric tools:

    • Electric tools should be operated within their design limitations.
    • Gloves and safety footwear are recommended during use of electric tools.
    • When not in use, tools should be stored in a dry place.
    • Electric tools should not be used in damp or wet locations.
    • Work areas should be well lighted.

    Powered Abrasive Wheel Tools

    Powered abrasive grinding, cutting, polishing, and wire buffing wheels create special safety problems because they may throw off flying fragments.

    Before an abrasive wheel is mounted, it should be inspected closely and sound- or ring-tested to be sure that it is free from cracks or defects. To test, wheels should be tapped gently with a light non-metallic instrument. If they sound cracked or dead, they could fly apart in operation and so must not be used. A sound and undamaged wheel will give a clear metallic tone or "ring."

    To prevent the wheel from cracking, the user should be sure it fits freely on the spindle. The spindle nut must be tightened enough to hold the wheel in place, without distorting the flange. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations. Care must be taken to assure that the spindle wheel will not exceed the abrasive wheel specifications.

    Due to the possibility of a wheel disintegrating (exploding) during start-up, the employee should never stand directly in front of the wheel as it accelerates to full operating speed.

    Portable grinding tools need to be equipped with safety guards to protect workers not only from the moving wheel surface, but also from flying fragments in case of breakage.

    In addition, when using a powered grinder:

    • Always use eye protection.
    • Turn off the power when not in use.
    • Never clamp a hand-held grinder in a vise.

    Pneumatic Tools

    Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air and include chippers, drills, hammers, and sanders.

    There are several dangers encountered in the use of pneumatic tools. The main one is the danger of getting hit by one of the tool's attachments or by some kind of fastener the worker is using with the tool.

    Eye protection is required and face protection is recommended for employees working with pneumatic tools.

    Noise is another hazard. Working with noisy tools such as jackhammers requires proper, effective use of hearing protection.

    When using pneumatic tools, employees must check to see that they are fastened securely to the hose to prevent them from becoming disconnected. A short wire or positive locking device attaching the air hose to the tool will serve as an added safeguard.

    A safety clip or retainer must be installed to prevent attachments, such as chisels on a chipping hammer, from being unintentionally shot from the barrel.

    Screens must be set up to protect nearby workers from being struck by flying fragments around chippers, riveting guns, staplers, or air drills.

    Compressed air guns should never be pointed toward anyone. Users should never "dead-end" it against themselves or anyone else.

    Powder-Actuated Tools

    Powder-actuated tools operate like a loaded gun and should be treated with the same respect and precautions. In fact, they are so dangerous that they must be operated only by specially trained employees.

    Safety precautions to remember include the following:

    • These tools should not be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere.
    • Before using the tool, the worker should inspect it to determine that it is clean, that all moving parts operate freely, and that the barrel is free from obstructions.
    • The tool should never be pointed at anybody.
    • The tool should not be loaded unless it is to be used immediately. A loaded tool should not be left unattended, especially where it would be available to unauthorized persons.
    • Hands should be kept clear of the barrel end. To prevent the tool from firing accidentally, two separate motions are required for firing: one to bring the tool into position, and another to pull the trigger. The tools must not be able to operate until they are pressed against the work surface with a force of at least 5 pounds greater than the total weight of the tool.

    If a powder-actuated tool misfires, the employee should wait at least 30 seconds, then try firing it again. If it still will not fire, the user should wait another 30 seconds so that the faulty cartridge is less likely to explode, than carefully remove the load. The bad cartridge should be put in water.

    Suitable eye and face protection are essential when using a powder-actuated tool.

    The muzzle end of the tool must have a protective shield or guard centered perpendicularly on the barrel to confine any flying fragments or particles that might otherwise create a hazard when the tool is fired. The tool must be designed so that it will not fire unless it has this kind of safety device.

    All powder-actuated tools must be designed for varying powder charges so that the user can select a powder level necessary to do the work without excessive force.

    If the tool develops a defect during use it should be tagged and taken out of service immediately until it is properly repaired.

    Fasteners

    When using powder-actuated tools to apply fasteners, there are some precautions to consider. Fasteners must not be fired into material that would let them pass through to the other side. The fastener must not be driven into materials like brick or concrete any closer than 3 inches to an edge or corner. In steel, the fastener must not come any closer than one-half inch from a corner or edge. Fasteners must not be driven into very hard or brittle materials which might chip or splatter, or make the fastener ricochet.

    An alignment guide must be used when shooting a fastener into an existing hole. A fastener must not be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening.

    Hydraulic Power Tools

    The fluid used in hydraulic power tools must be an approved fire-resistant fluid and must retain its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed.

    The manufacturer's recommended safe operating pressure for hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and other fittings must not be exceeded.

    Jacks

    All jacks - lever and rachet jacks, screw jacks, and hydraulic jacks - must have a device that stops them from jacking up too high. Also, the manufacturer's load limit must be permanently marked in a prominent place on the jack and should not be exceeded.

    A jack should never be used to support a lifted load. Once the load has been lifted, it must immediately be blocked up.

    Use wooden blocking under the base if necessary to make the jack level and secure. If the lift surface is metal, place a 1-inch-thick hardwood block or equivalent between it and the metal jack head to reduce the danger of slippage.

    To set up a jack, make certain of the following:

    • the base rests on a firm level surface,
    • the jack is correctly centered,
    • the jack head bears against a level surface, and
    • the lift force is applied evenly.

    Proper maintenance of jacks is essential for safety. All jacks must be inspected before each use and lubricated regularly. If a jack is subjected to an abnormal load or shock, it should be thoroughly examined to make sure it has not been damaged.

    Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures must be filled with an adequate antifreeze liquid.

    General Safety Precautions

    Employees who use hand and power tools and who are exposed to the hazards of falling, flying, abrasive and splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases must be provided with the particular personal equipment necessary to protect them from the hazard.

    All hazards involved in the use of power tools can be prevented by following five basic safety rules:

    • Keep all tools in good condition with regular maintenance.
    • Use the right tool for the job.
    • Examine each tool for damage before use.
    • Operate according to the manufacturer's instructions.
    • Provide and use the proper protective equipment.

    Employees and employers have a responsibility to work together to establish safe working procedures. If a hazardous situation is encountered, it should be brought to the attention of the proper individual immediately.

    hand-power-tool-safety-tileHand and Power Tool Safety - OSHA Safety Training: Hand and power tools are used every day in many types of business. They make our work easier and allow us to be more efficient. However, we often fail to see the hazards these tools present.

    Our training products on "Hand and Power Tool Safety" show how accidents can be significantly reduced by applying good general safety rules, and review what hazards are associated with the specific types of tools employees use. Topics covered in these products include:

    • Choosing tools that fit you and the job.
    • Protecting yourself and others from tool-related hazards.
    • Personal protective equipment.
    • The special hazards associated with electric power tools.
    • Tool care and maintenance.
    • and more.

    Get a Quote for a Class:
    Hand and Power Tool Safety Live Instruction Training Courses at YOUR Location

  • Public Health Preparedness Training Plan

    E-healthAs a community Outreach, the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) has launched a Public Health Preparedness Training Plan.

    Did you know that you can learn about key public health preparedness concepts through courses included in CDC’s online training plan?  This training plan, Foundations of Public Health Preparedness, includes courses that teach the fundamental principles of effective public health preparedness and response – important  for everyone who works in public health.

    Register on CDC TRAIN and start learning how you can help protect our nation’s health security.

    CDC-Training-education-learning-features-mar2016-phptp

  • Arc Welding Safety

    See our Welding Safety Training Materials See our Welding Safety Training Materials

    Welding, cutting and brazing operations present a series of hazardous situations with potential exposure to burns, eye damage, electrical shock, crushed toes and fingers, and the inhalation of vapors and fumes.

    Many accidents can result from Arc Welding Operations

    Many welding, cutting and brazing accidents result from:

    • Inadequately trained personnel.
    • Poor housekeeping practices.
    • Poor shop layout.
    • Inadequate lighting and ventilation.
    • Improper storage and movement of compressed gas cylinders.
    • Exposure of oxygen cylinders and fittings to oil or grease creating a fire or explosive hazard.

    Many welding, cutting and brazing accidents result from (cont.)

    • Pointing welding or cutting torches at a concrete surface causing spattering and flying fragments of concrete.
    • Electric shock when motors, generators and other electric welding equipment are not grounded.
    • Inhalation of toxic fumes or vapors from welding metals or alloys.

    Fires, explosions, and injuries can occur resulting from:

    • The proximity of combustible solids, liquids, or dusts.
    • The presence or development of possible explosive mixtures of flammable gases and air.
    • The presence or nature of an oxygen-enriched atmosphere in locations where hot work is performed.

    Cutters and welders, and other exposed personnel, are also susceptible to eye injury from infrared light and ultraviolet radiation.

    Personal Protective Equipment to use during A.W.

    It is essential that the operator and helpers are properly clothed and protected because of the heat, ultra-violet rays, and sparks, produced by the arc welder.

    For body protection:

    • A pair of fire retardant long sleeved coveralls without cuffs is a good choice.

    -Avoid clothing with tears, snags, rips, or worn spots  (these areas are easily ignited by sparks).

    • Sleeves and collars should be kept buttoned.
    • The hands should be protected with leather gauntlet gloves.
    • High top leather shoes, preferably safety steel toed shoes/boots.

    -If low shoes are worn the ankles should be protected by fire resistant leggings.

    • Helmets shall be used during all arc welding or arc cutting operations. Goggles should also be worn during arc welding or cutting operations to provide protection from injurious rays from adjacent work, and from flying objects. The goggles may have either clear or colored glass, depending upon the amount of exposure to adjacent welding operations. Helpers or attendants shall be provided with proper eye protection. Helmets shall be arranged to protect the face, neck, and ears from direct radiant energy from the arc.. The filter plate should be at least shade #10 for general welding up to 200 amps. However, certain operations such as carbon-arc welding and higher current welding operations require darker shades. Never use a helmet if the filter plate or cover lens is cracked or broken. Never use a helmet if the filter plate or cover lens is cracked or broken.  Most welding helmets nowadays are speed helmets and use a Teflon coated plate; however these scratch and allow welding rays to penetrate.
    • Transparent goggles for eye protection if the person wears prescription glasses or safety glasses if not. Prescription glasses need side shields

    Contact Lenses shall not be worn.

    • A flame-proof skull cap to protect the hair and head. The usage of hairspray should be kept to a minimum do to flammability factors.
    • Hearing protection in noisy situations is recommended.

    Plastic disposable cigarette lighters are very dangerous around heat and flame. It is very important that they are not carried in the pockets while welding. Always provide protection to bystanders or other workers by welding inside a properly screened area, if possible. If unable to work inside a screened area then protection to others should be provided by a portable screen or shield, or by their wearing anti-flash goggles.

    Ventilation Requirements

    The welder should be located in an area with adequate ventilation. In general, when welding is being done on metals not considered hazardous, a ventilation system that will move a minimum of 2000 cubic feet per minute (CFM) of air per welder is satisfactory. However, many materials are considered very hazardous and should be welded only in adequately ventilated areas to prevent the accumulation of toxic materials or to eliminate possible oxygen deficiency not only to the operator but to others in the immediate vicinity.

    Such ventilation should be supplied by an exhaust system located as close to the work as possible. When welding or cutting metals with hazardous coatings such as galvanized metal the operator should use a supplied-air type respirator or a respirator specially designed to filter the specific metal fume. Materials included in the very hazardous category are welding rod fluxes, coverings, or other materials containing fluorine compounds, zinc, lead, beryllium, cadmium, and mercury. Some cleaning and degreasing compounds as well as the metals they were cleaned with are also hazardous. Always follow the manufacturers precautions before welding or cutting in the presence of these materials.

     

    Welder's First Aid Kit - ndustrial strength workers deserve industrial strength care. Our 114-piece, 16-unit welder's first aid kit focuses on a wide range of injuries common to welders such as minor cuts, sprains, welder's arc and other common eye irritations. Products are contained in a sturdy plastic case with gasket. Welder's First Aid Kit - ndustrial strength workers deserve industrial strength care. Our 114-piece, 16-unit welder's first aid kit focuses on a wide range of injuries common to welders such as minor cuts, sprains, welder's arc and other common eye irritations. Products are contained in a sturdy plastic case with gasket.

    Fire Prevention Precautions

    The arc welder is capable of producing temperatures in excess of 10,000 degrees F., therefore it is important that the workplace be made fire safe. This can be accomplished by using metal sheets or fire resistant curtains as fire barriers. The floor should be concrete or another fire resistant material. Cracks in the floor should be filled to prevent sparks and hot metal from entering. When work cannot be moved to a fire safe area then the area should be made safe by removing or protecting combustibles from ignition sources. In certain welding situations it may be necessary to ask someone to watch for fires that could go undetected until the welder has finished the job.

    1. The welding operation environment shall be free of flammable liquids and vapors. Combustible materials within a radius of 35 feet of the operation will be protected from activity residue (flame, heat, sparks, slag, etc.).
    2. Fire watcher procedures shall be implemented whenever welding activities are conducted within 35 feet of combustible materials, regardless of protection provided. A qualified individual proficient in the operation of available fire extinguishing equipment and knowledgeable of fire reporting procedures shall observe welding or cutting activities. His or her duty is to detect and prevent the spread of fire produced by welding or cutting activities.
    3. Whenever there are cracks or other floor openings within 35 feet of the welding or cutting that cannot be closed or covered, precautions shall be taken to remove or otherwise protect combustible materials on the floor below that may be exposed to sparks. The same precautions shall be observed with regard to cracks or openings in walls, open doorways, and open or broken windows.
    4. Fire extinguishing equipment shall be maintained, ready for use, while welding or cutting operations are being performed. Equipment may consist of pails of water, buckets of sand, hose, or portable extinguishers depending upon the nature and quantity of the combustible material exposed.

    Safe Operation of an Arc Welder

    It is important that anyone operating an arc welder be instructed on its safe use by a qualified teacher or welder. Because of their potentially explosive nature, no welding, cutting, or hot work shall be attempted on used drums, barrels, tanks, or other containers under any circumstances.

    Before starting operations, all connections to the arc welding machine shall be checked. The work lead shall be firmly attached to the work; contact surfaces of the magnetic work clamps shall be free of metal splatter particles. Coiled welding cable shall be spread out before use to avoid serious overheating and damage to insulation. Work and electrode lead cables shall be inspected for damage and wear before use. Cables with damaged insulation or exposed conductors shall be replaced. Electrode cables shall be joined and insulated in accordance with approved methods.

    If possible, work to be welded should be placed on a firebrick surface at a comfortable height. Welding should never be done directly on a concrete floor. Heat from the arc can cause steam to build-up in the floor, which could cause an explosion.

    The welder cables shall be positioned so that sparks and molten metal will not fall on them. They should also be kept free of grease and oil and located where they will not be driven over.

    Electric welders can kill by electric shock. If the welding operation must be done on steel or other conductive material an insulating mat must be used under the operator. If the welding area is wet or damp or the operator is actively perspiring, he shall wear rubber gloves beneath the welding gloves.

    It is easier and safer to establish an arc on a clean surface than a dirty or rusty one. Therefore, metal shall always be thoroughly cleaned by wire brushing or other method prior to welding. When chipping slag or wire brushing the finished bead, the operator shall always protect his eyes and body from flying slag and chips.

    Unused electrodes and electrode stubs shall not be left on the floor (they create a slipping hazard). Welders shall not place welding cables and other equipment where it will obstruct passageways, ladders, and stairways.

    When quenching hot metal in water, it shall be done carefully to prevent painful burns from the escaping steam. Any metal left to cool shall be carefully marked "HOT" with a soapstone.

    Hot metal shall be handled with metal tongs or pliers.

    When welding is finished for the day or suspended for any length of time, electrodes shall be removed from the holder. The holder shall be placed where no accidental contact could occur, and the welder should be disconnected from its power source.

    Arc Welding Safety Checklist
    • Are only authorized and trained personnel permitted to use welding, cutting or brazing equipment?
    • Does each operator have a copy of the appropriate operating instructions and are they directed to follow them?
    • Is open circuit (No Load) voltage of arc welding and cutting machines as low as possible and not in excess of the recommended limits?
    • Under wet conditions, are automatic controls for reducing no load voltage used?
    • Is grounding of the machine frame and safety ground connections of portable machines checked periodically?
    • Are electrodes removed from the holders when not in use?
    • Is it required that electric power to the welder be shut off when no one is in attendance?
    • Is suitable fire extinguishing equipment available for immediate use?
    • Is the welder forbidden to coil or loop welding electrode cable around his body?
    • Are wet machines thoroughly dried and tested before being used?
    • Are work and electrode lead cables frequently inspected for wear and damage, and replaced when needed?
    • Do means for connecting cable lengths have adequate insulation?
    • When the object to be welded cannot be moved and fire hazards cannot be removed, are shields used to confine heat, sparks, and slag?
    • Are fire watchers assigned when welding or cutting is performed in locations where a serious fire might develop?
    • Are combustible floors kept wet, covered by damp sand, or protected by fire-resistant shields?
    • When floors are wet down, are personnel protected from possible electrical shock?
    • When welding is done on metal walls, are precautions taken to protect combustibles on the other side?
    • Before hot work is begun, are used drums, barrels, tanks, and other containers so thoroughly cleaned that no substances remain that could explode, ignite, or produce toxic vapors?
    • Is it required that eye protection helmets, hand shields and goggles meet appropriate standards?
    • Are employees exposed to the hazards created by welding, cutting, or brazing operations protected with personal protective equipment and clothing?
    • Is a check made for adequate ventilation in and where welding or cutting is performed?
    • When working in confined places, are environmental monitoring tests taken and means provided for quick removal of welders in case of an emergency?

    SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ENGINE POWERED WELDERS

    • Always operate in an open well-ventilated area or vent the engine exhaust directly outdoors.
    • Never fuel the engine while running or in the presence of an open flame.
    • Wipe up spilled fuel immediately and wait for fumes to disperse before starting the engine.
    • *Never remove the radiator pressure cap from liquid cooled engines while they are hot to prevent scalding yourself.
    • Stop the engine before performing any maintenance or trouble shooting. The ignition system should be disabled to prevent accidental start of the engine.
    • Keep all guards and shields in place.
    • Keep hands, hair, and clothing away from moving parts.

    The welding area should always be equipped with a fire blanket and a well stocked first aid kit. It is desirable that one person be trained in first aid to treat the minor injuries that may occur. All injuries, no matter how minor they may seem can become more serious if not properly treated by trained medical personnel. Learn more: Top 5 Safety Tips For Metal Fabrication Workers

  • Seizures Symptoms and Treatment

    Image of responder treating a seizure victim casualtyGeneral Information & Symptoms

    • A seizure can be a medical emergency. Some people experience regular seizures due to epilepsy or other medical conditions.
    • It is common for a casualty to experience disorientation and confusion following a seizure.

    Treating Seizures

    • Call 9-1-1 or EMS immediately for seizures in a casualty who is not known to have epilepsy or in a casualty with epilepsy who has a seizure that lasts longer than 15 minutes.
    • Place the casualty in a location where he/she will not injure himself or herself. This usually means laying the casualty on the floor, away from walls and heavy or sharp objects. Place a soft pillow or clothing under the head if possible.
    • Do not try to restrain the casualty.
    • Do not slap the casualty or douse him/her with water.
    • Do not try to place any objects or fingers between the casualty’s teeth.
    • After the convulsion, turn the casualty on her/his side in case of vomiting.
    • Continue to monitor the casualty for any signs of breathing difficulty or changes in consciousness. If the casualty stops breathing, begin CPR immediately and call 9-1-1!

    Content excerpted from the Urgent First Aid Guide used by permission Copyright 2013 UrgentFirstAid.com
    All Rights Reserved. Get a full copy of the First Aid Guide for under $1!

    Seizures can be a frightening thing to witness, but most seizures are not life-threatening. Learn treatment and special considerations for seizures. Find out about LIVE OSHA Standard First Aid & Emergency Care at your location... check out American CPR Training™

  • Basics about Radiation

    What is radiation?

    In general, the following kinds of radiation are evaluated for purposes of radiation protection:  alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, X rays, and neutrons.
    Brief definitions of these follow:Radiation

    Alpha rays
    A particle ray consisting of two protons and two neutrons (namely, a nucleus of helium). Alpha rays are produced following spontaneous decay of certain radioactive atoms, such as radium, plutonium, uranium, and radon. Because of its large mass and positive charge, an alpha ray can usually pass only a short distance--less than 1 mm--in water. A single piece of paper can stop an alpha ray effectively. Therefore, health effects of alpha-ray exposures appear only when alpha-emitting materials are ingested (ie, internal exposure).

    Beta ray
    A particle ray consisting of a fast electron whose mass is nearly 1/2000 of the mass of a proton or neutron. Beta rays are produced following spontaneous decay of certain radioactive materials, such as tritium (an isotope of hydrogen), carbon-14, phosphorus-32, and strontium-90. Depending on its energy (ie, speed), a beta ray can traverse different distances in water--less than 1 mm for tritium to nearly 1 cm for phosphorus-32. As with alpha rays, the major concern for health effects is after their ingestion (ie, internal exposure).

    Potassium Iodide Tablets USP, 130 mg Potassium Iodide Tablets USP, 130 mg

    Gamma ray
    An electromagnetic wave, a gamma ray is similar to ordinary visible light but differs in energy or wavelength. Sunlight consists of a mixture of electromagnetic rays of various wavelengths, from the longest, infrared, through red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet, to the shortest in wavelength, ultraviolet. A gamma ray's wavelength is far shorter than ultraviolet (ie, it is far higher in energy). Gamma rays are produced following spontaneous decay of radioactive materials, such as cobalt-60 and cesium-137. A cobalt-60 gamma ray can penetrate deeply into the human body, so it has been widely used for cancer radiotherapy.

    X ray
    X rays have the same characteristics as gamma rays, although they are produced differently. When high-speed electrons hit metals, electrons are stopped and release energy in the form of an electromagnetic wave. This was first observed by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, who considered it a mysterious ray, and thus called it an X ray. X rays consist of a mixture of different wavelengths, whereas gamma-ray energy has a fixed value (or two) characteristic to the radioactive material.

    Neutrons
    Neutron particles are released following nuclear fission (splitting of an atomic nucleus producing large amounts of energy) of uranium or plutonium. In fact, it is neutrons that trigger the nuclear chain reaction to explode an atomic bomb. Neutrons hardly damage cells because they do not carry any electrical charge. However, the human body contains a large amount of hydrogen (a constituent of water molecules that occupy 70% of the human body), and when neutrons hit the nucleus of hydrogen, ie, a proton that is positively charged, the proton causes ionizations in the body, leading to various types of damage. At equivalent absorbed doses, neutrons can cause more severe damage to the body than gamma rays.

  • Aerial Lift Truck Operator Safety

    Aerial lift operation, if not conducted properly, can be a highly accident-prone undertaking. Lift operators fall out of baskets as a result of not wearing safety lanyards, are exposed to potential electrical shock or electrocution, and other common and risky work habits including:

    • Aerial_LiftNot being properly tooled up for the task,
    • Exceeding the limitations of the machine,
    • Using incorrect work methods for the chosen machine,
    • Working in a towering unit with an inoperative intercom system,
    • Stringing cable through a defective fairlead.

    Fatal Falls and Other Risks
    "Falls are a leading cause of on-the-job fatalities," according to Secretary of Labor Alexis Herman. For those working in aerial lifts or those managing workers up in the lifts, this is a comment worth heeding.

    According to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, falls by workers in the construction industry accounted for 39% of fatalities from 1992-1997. For power line workers, falls from elevations rank among the top causes of accidents. Electrocution and injuries from falling objects are other leading causes of injury.

    In general, workers employed in the construction of power transmission and distribution systems have a risk of between 17 to 23 deaths per 1,000 workers over a working lifetime of 45 years, according to OSHA. Major causes of non-fatal injuries include over-exertion, electrical shock injuries and burns, sprains, strains, cuts, lacerations and contusions.

    Each aerial truck operation presents its own specific hazards which must be properly anticipated, recognized, and avoided by observing proper safe work practices.

    Some Safe Work Practices include:

    • A thorough inspection of the vehicle and lifting apparatus must be completed prior to each shift.
    • Aerial trucks are to be used on flat, stable surfaces, of less than a 5-degree grade.
    • The aerial truck is not to be touched if it comes into contact with electrical wiring
    • The primary operator shall not belt off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from the aerial bucket
    • The primary operator shall wear a body belt with a two foot lanyard attached to the aerial bucket when working in the aerial lift.  A fall protection harness is required when working from a platform.
    • Sufficient signs, racks, and traffic cones shall be available for the appropriate traffic control.
    • Assistant ground personnel shall be instructed in the operation of the aerial lift.
    • Emergency phone numbers and First Aid trained personnel shall be made readily available.

    The following information is designed to offer some specific recommendations for the safe operation of aerial trucks on the job.

    AERIAL LIFT EQUIPMENT

    Aerial lift devices shall conform to ANSI Standards applicable to the type of equipment being used---bucket truck, portable and/or self-propelled personnel lift, etc. Aerial lift devices shall only be used for the purpose(s) intended by the manufacturer. All manufacturer recommendations and warnings regarding operation, capacity, and safety precautions shall be strictly followed. Permanent labeling must be conspicuously posted to indicate lifting capacity and travel height.

    Only devices approved for lifting personnel shall be used as aerial lifts. Loaders, forklifts, or other material lift devices shall not be used to transport individuals to elevated locations or as work platforms.

    Maintenance inspections of aerial lifts shall be made every three months by qualified mechanics. Unauthorized modifications shall not be made to any aerial lift device. Buckets and bucket liners shall not be cut or drilled.

    FALL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

    Safety belts/full body harnesses and lanyards shall only be used as intended by the manufacturer for employee fall protection. Appropriate devices shall be used to provide 100% fall protection. Where single 'D' ring safety belts are used, the 'D' ring shall be located in the middle of the back to minimize impact on the body in a fall.

    All fall protection equipment shall be carefully inspected before each use and periodically throughout the day. Safety equipment showing any sign of mildew, torn or frayed fiber or fabric, burns, excessive wear, or other damage or deterioration which could cause failure shall be permanently removed from use. Safety belts/full body harnesses, lanyards, safety lines, and all other fall protection equipment shall be properly maintained and stored---kept dry and out of sunlight, and away from caustics, corrosives or other materials which could cause defect.

    Hard hats and safety belts or full body harnesses shall be worn by operators in the bucket or on the platform of any aerial lift device while in operation. Loose-fitting clothing shall not be worn while working in any aerial lift device. High-visibility apparel is not required for operators 'in the air', but shall be worn before entering and after leaving the bucket or platform.

    Consideration must be given to water hazards and appropriate precautions. When 100% fall protection is employed, OSHA water safety standards are not mandated. However, it is advisable to take minimum precautions such as readily available buoy and safety line.

    OPERATING PROCEDURES

    Lift equipment shall be inspected and controls tested daily before use. On boom devices, one crew member qualified in the operation of the ground controls shall remain readily available on the ground at all times while the lift is operating. Only properly trained employees shall operate the lift. Ground controls shall not be operated without the permission of the operator(s) 'in the air', except in emergencies.

    Before extending the boom or raising the platform, outriggers (if the vehicle is so equipped) shall be positioned properly and the truck level. Outriggers shall be placed on pads, blocking, or other solid surface, and shall not be used to level the vehicle. The parking brake (and mico brake if so equipped) shall be set and wheel chocks in place. Sufficient overhead clearance shall be checked before raising any aerial lift. For under-bridge units, adequate clearance beneath the boom shall be assured.

    Operators shall keep both feet on the bucket floor while the bucket is moving, or work is being performed. Operators shall not attach themselves to an adjacent pole, structure or tree while working from the bucket, but shall remain connected by safety belt or full body harness and lanyard to the boom, boom eyelet, or boom strap and 'D' ring. Operators required to leave the bucket to gain access to a work location shall maintain 100% fall protection by connection of a lanyard to a safety line, structure or tree capable of supporting the employee(s). Operators exiting buckets in locations requiring 100% fall protection shall wear a full body harness. Tree spikes shall not be worn in the bucket. Buckets shall have an inside and outside step (portable 'E-Z step' or step through features are examples).

    Platform lifts shall have a top and mid rail and kick plate, and a means for each person to attach a safety belt or full body harness and lanyard to the platform. A safety belt or full body harness and lanyard shall be used by each operator on the platform. Operators shall keep both feet on the floor of the platform; shall not sit or climb on the railing; or use planks, ladders, or other devices to raise the working height. The gate shall be closed before raising the work platform.

    The carrier portion of an aerial lift unit shall not be moved (travel) while the lift is out of its cradle, unless the unit is designed to do so. When a unit is moved with operators in the air, they shall be aware of the move and be in communication with those moving the vehicle. Generally, for transport the boom shall be properly cradled and the outriggers properly stowed. Bucket covers shall be in place during transport to prevent loss of the bucket liner.

    Tools, parts or any materials shall not be dropped or thrown from the bucket. When using welding or heating equipment from the bucket or platform, the vehicle shall be protected from sparks or slag and special care taken to protect or remove flammables.

    Positioning of any vehicle on the highway pavement or shoulder requires maintenance and protection of traffic procedures in accordance with the State Highway Work Zone Safety Policies and Procedures.

    ELECTRICAL SAFETY

    When working near electrical lines or equipment, avoid direct or indirect contact. Direct contact is body contact. Indirect contact is when the body touches or is in dangerous proximity to any object in contact with energized systems. Always assume that lines are 'live' and carry high voltage. Electrical lines can only be considered 'dead' when verified by the utility.

    All operations shall conform to the High Voltage Proximity Act, which applies to electrical systems carrying 600 volts or more and requires employers to:

    • Ensure operators are not placed in proximity to high voltage (within 10 feet up to 50 kilovolts).
    • Inform operators of the hazards and precautions of working near high voltage.
    • Post warning decals on equipment regarding 10-foot minimum clearance.
    • Ensure that when an equipment operator is unable to assess clearances a 'spotter' observes for clearance and directs the operator.
    • Notify the utility at least 5 working days before any work begins which requires the utility to identify voltages and clearances, or de-energize, insulate or relocate lines.

    As voltages increase, minimum clearances increase and potential for arcing increases. Injuries or fatalities may occur even if contact is not made. Weather and contact with conductors such as tools can increase the possibility of arcing. Because most operators are not qualified to determine voltage, the utility shall be called to establish voltages and minimum clearances, and to render the work safe. Where prior notification cannot be made, request the utility to respond immediately.

    Tree crews and traffic signal crews shall receive specialized electrical safety training because of their frequent work near energized electrical systems. Annual training shall be conducted, preferably in conjunction with or supplemented by training from local utility companies, and include characteristics, hazards and precautions for high voltage electricity.

    Prior to the start of an operation where contact with energized electrical systems is possible, supervisors shall identify energized lines or equipment, and reference their location. Their location shall be discussed at a pre-work safety meeting of all crew members. All new employees shall be similarly informed.

    DEFINITIONS

    Aerial Lift - A piece of equipment, extendible and/or articulating, designed to position personnel and/or materials in elevated locations.

    ANSI - American National Standards Institute

    Lanyard - ANSI approved line designed for supporting one person, with one end fastened to a safety belt or full body harness, and the other end secured to a safety line or structural member. Lanyards shall not exceed 6' in length, and preferably include a 'shock-absorber' to attenuate fall impact.

    OSHA - Occupational Safety & Health Administration

    Safety Body Belt/Full Body Harness - ANSI approved body device designed for fall protection, which by reason of its attachment to a lanyard and safety line or structure will limit a fall to 6' or less. A full body harness is the preferred device for fall protection in aerial lift devices. However, safety body belts may be used as 'positioning devices' in aerial lift equipment, where employees stand with both feet on the floor of the bucket or platform; and are an acceptable alternative to harnesses only in this application. Because aerial lifts have passive fall protection systems, the intent of the belt is to keep the occupant(s) in the device upon impact, not to attenuate a fall from it.

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