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cold skin

  • Working in the Cold...

    With the winter season starting, it's time to prepare your workers for cold working conditions and winter driving.

    • Did you know that salting ice loses its effectiveness at around 15 degrees F?
    • Or that it takes workers five to seven days to acclimatize to working outdoors in cold conditions?
    • Did you know that braking on ice-covered roads takes three to 12 times longer than if you were braking on a dry road?
    • Preparing your workers for winter weather conditions will help keep productivity high, and injuries low...

    Cold-WorkAccording to OSHA, anyone working in a cold environment may be at risk of cold stress. Some workers may be required to work outdoors in cold environments and for extended periods, for example, snow cleanup crews, sanitation workers, police officers and emergency response and recovery personnel, like firefighters, and emergency medical technicians. Cold stress can be encountered in these types of work environment. The following frequently asked questions will help workers understand what cold stress is, how it may affect their health and safety, and how it can be prevented.

    How cold is too cold?

    What constitutes extreme cold and its effects can vary across different areas of the country. In regions that are not used to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered "extreme cold." A cold environment forces the body to work harder to maintain its temperature. Whenever temperatures drop below normal and wind speed increases, heat can leave your body more rapidly.

    Wind chill is the temperature your body feels when air temperature and wind speed are combined. For example, when the air temperature is 40°F, and the wind speed is 35 mph, the effect on the exposed skin is as if the air temperature was 28°F.

    Cold stress occurs by driving down the skin temperature and eventually the internal body temperature (core temperature). This may lead to serious health problems, and may cause tissue damage, and possibly death.

    What are the risk factors that contribute to cold stress?

    Some of the risk factors that contribute to cold stress are:

    Wetness/dampness, dressing improperly, and exhaustion
    Predisposing health conditions such as hypertension, hypothyroidism, and diabetes
    Poor physical conditioning
    How does the body react to cold conditions?

    In a cold environment, most of the body's energy is used to keep the internal core temperature warm. Over time, the body will begin to shift blood flow from the extremities (hands, feet, arms, and legs) and outer skin to the core (chest and abdomen). This shift allows the exposed skin and the extremities to cool rapidly and increases the risk of frostbite and hypothermia. Combine this scenario with exposure to a wet environment, and trench foot may also be a problem.

  • What is Shock?

    Image of responder assisting shock victim casualty

    What is Shock? Hypoperfusion (shock) is inadequate body tissue perfusion, resulting inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues

    • ~ Shock is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate treatment and attention.
    • ~ Shock is characterized by pale, cold, clammy skin, shivering or chills, confusion, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and/or a weak pulse with shallow, rapid breathing.
    • ~ Shock usually accompanies other severe injuries, burns, allergic reactions, severe pain such as a heart attack, or sudden loss of blood.


    Content excerpted from the Urgent First Aid Guide used by permission Copyright 2013
    All Rights Reserved. Get a full copy of the First Aid Guide for under $1!

    Shock can be a life-threatening condition and can manifest itself in a variety of ways and levels of severity. Read about Shock First Aid Treatment

    Learn The Signs & Symptoms for shock, as well as treatment for specific types of shock. Find out about LIVE OSHA Standard First Aid & Emergency Care at your location... check out American CPR Training™

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